Modules

Hilt Modules

Hilt modules are standard Dagger modules that have an additional @InstallIn annotation that determines which Hilt component(s) to install the module into.

When the Hilt components are generated, the modules annotated with @InstallIn will be installed into the corresponding component or subcomponent via @Component#modules or @Subcomponent#modules respectively. Just like in Dagger, installing a module into a component allows that binding to be accessed as a dependency of other bindings in that component or any child component(s) below it in the component hierarchy. They can also be accessed from the corresponding @AndroidEntryPoint classes. Being installed in a component also allows that binding to be scoped to that component.

Using @InstallIn

A module is installed in a Hilt Component by annotating the module with the @InstallIn annotation. These annotations are required on all Dagger modules when using Hilt, but this check may be optionally disabled.

Note: If a module does not have an @InstallIn annotation, the module will not be part of the component and may result in compilation errors.

Specify which Hilt Component to install the module in by passing in the appropriate Component type(s) to the @InstallIn annotation. For example, to install a module so that anything in the application can use it, use ApplicationComponent:

Java
Kotlin
@Module
@InstallIn(ApplicationComponent.class) // Installs FooModule in the generate ApplicationComponent.
public final class FooModule {
  @Provides
  static Bar provideBar() {...}
}
@Module
@InstallIn(ApplicationComponent::class) // Installs FooModule in the generate ApplicationComponent.
object FooModule {
  @Provides
  fun provideBar(): Bar {...}
}

Each component comes with a scoping annotation that can be used to memoize a binding to the lifetime of the component. For example, to scope a binding to the ApplicationComponent component, use the @Singleton annotation:

Java
Kotlin
@Module
@InstallIn(ApplicationComponent.class)
public final class FooModule {
  // @Singleton providers are only called once per ApplicationComponent instance.
  @Provides
  @Singleton
  static Bar provideBar() {...}
}
@Module
@InstallIn(ApplicationComponent::class)
object class FooModule {
  // @Singleton providers are only called once per ApplicationComponent instance.
  @Provides
  @Singleton
  fun provideBar(): Bar {...}
}

In addition, each component has bindings that are available to it by default. (See Hilt Components for a complete list.) For example, the ApplicationComponent component provides the Application binding:

Java
Kotlin
@Module
@InstallIn(ApplicationComponent.class)
public final class FooModule {
  // @InstallIn(ApplicationComponent.class) module providers have access to
  // the Application binding.
  @Provides
  static Bar provideBar(Application app) {...}
}
@Module
@InstallIn(ApplicationComponent::class)
object class FooModule {
  // @InstallIn(ApplicationComponent.class) module providers have access to
  // the Application binding.
  @Provides
  fun provideBar(app: Application): Bar {...}
}

Installing a module in multiple components

A module can be installed in multiple components. For example, maybe you have a binding in ViewComponent and ViewWithFragmentComponent and do not want to duplicate modules. @InstallIn({ViewComponent.class, ViewWithFragmentComponent.class}) will install a module in both components.

There are three rules to follow when installing a module in multiple components:

  • Providers can only be scoped if all of the components support the same scope annotation. For example, a binding provided in ViewComponent and ViewWithFragmentComponent can be @ViewScoped because they both support that scope annotation. A binding provided in Fragment and Service can not be scoped with any of the standard scopes.
  • Providers can only inject bindings if all of the components have access to those bindings. For example, a binding in ViewComponent and ViewWithFragmentComponent can inject a View, whereas something bound in FragmentComponent and ServiceComponent could not inject either Fragment or Service.
  • A child and ancestor component should not install the same module. (Just install the module in the ancestor, and the child will have access to those bindings).

App Build variants

Most Android apps will want to pull in different modules and bindings depending on the build variant of the app (e.g. production, debug, testing, etc.).

In Hilt, if your binary’s build target transitively depends on a module, then that module will be installed in the appropriate component for your app. This makes configuration as easy as defining a different build target and pulling different deps into your binary definition.

Bazel: Organizing your BUILD files

Because Bazel tends to enourage separation into finer-grained build targets, it is often better for tests to just avoid depending on modules you intend to replace in tests instead of uninstalling them. This is because it reduces the build dependencies of your test which can lead to overall faster build times.

When organizing your BUILD target for a module, you should consider if this module should be replaceable in tests or other configurations of your app. If it should never be replaced, then feel free to include the module with your other code sources.

If it should be replaceable though, you should create a separate target for your module. This target can then be pulled in at the root of your app so that each test root (or other configuration root) can decide whether to use your module or not.

There are two ways to organize your BUILD targets with regards to modules depending on the situation:

  • Simply include modules with your normal build target. This will mean that users depending on your library will always get your definition.
  • For those bindings that you want to be replaceable in tests, split your modules out into a target called “module” that is meant to be depended on at the android_binary level.

It is recommended to choose the first method by default and use the second method only for bindings that need to be replaceable in tests. It is expected, though, that many libraries will use both methods.