Depending on an interface

But wait: why does CommandRouter’s constructor need a HelloWorldCommand specifically? Shouldn’t it be able to use any kind of Command?

Let’s instead specify CommandRouter’s dependency as a plain Command:

CommandRouter(Command command) {
  commands.put(command.key(), command);

But now Dagger doesn’t know how to get an instance of Command. If you try to compile, Dagger reports an error. Since Command is an interface and can’t have an @Inject constructor, we need to give Dagger more information.

To do that, we can write a method annotated with @Binds:

abstract class HelloWorldModule {
  abstract Command helloWorldCommand(HelloWorldCommand command);

This @Binds method tells Dagger that when something depends on a Command, Dagger should provide a HelloWorldCommand object in its place. Notice that the return type of the method, Command, is the type that Dagger now knows how to provide, and the parameter type is the type that Dagger knows to use when something depends on Command.

The method is abstract because just its declaration is enough to tell Dagger what to do. Dagger does not actually call this method or provide an implementation for it.

Notice that the @Binds method is declared in a type that’s annotated with @Module. Modules are collections of binding methods (methods annotated with @Binds or a few other annotations as we’ll see later) that give Dagger instructions on how to provide instances. Unlike @Inject, which goes directly on a class’s constructor, @Binds methods must be inside a module.

To tell Dagger to look for that @Binds method in HelloWorldModule, we add it to the @Component annotation.

@Component(modules = HelloWorldModule.class)
interface CommandRouterFactory {
  CommandRouter router();

Aside: You might be wondering why it is that we don’t need a @Module to tell Dagger about the @Inject-annotated classes we need as well. The answer is that Dagger already knows to look at those types because they appear somewhere in a component or module that Dagger is using. In the case of CommandRouter, it’s the return type of the CommandRouterFactory’s entry point method. And in the case of HelloWorldCommand, it’s the parameter type of the @Binds method we just wrote in HelloWorldModule. And before that, it appeared as a constructor parameter to CommandRouter, so Dagger learned about it transitively when looking at CommandRouter.

Now when Dagger looks to create a CommandRouter and sees that it needs a Command, it will use the instructions in HelloWorldModule to create one.

With this change, our application should continue to work just like it did before, but our CommandRouter class is no longer forced to only work with one kind of Command.


  • @Modules are classes or interfaces that act as collections of instructions for Dagger on how to construct dependencies. They’re called modules because they are modular: you can mix and match modules in different applications and contexts.
  • @Binds methods are one way to tell Dagger how to construct an instance. They are abstract methods on modules that associate one type that Dagger already knows how to construct (the method’s parameter) with a type that Dagger doesn’t yet know how to construct (the method’s return type).

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