Tutorial setup

To explain how to use Dagger, we will build a command line ATM application. It will track the balance of accounts, and accept commands on the command line:

> deposit 20
> withdraw 10

Let’s start with building the shell of this application, first without Dagger. If some aspects appear to be overly complicated, bear with us, as Dagger starts to show its power once applications grow larger.

First, we’ll create a Command interface for each of the possible textual commands that the ATM can handle.

/** Logic to process some user input. */
interface Command {
   * String token that signifies this command should be selected (e.g.:
   * "deposit", "withdraw")
  String key();

  /** Process the rest of the command's words and do something. */
  Status handleInput(List<String> input);

  enum Status {

And we’ll create a CommandRouter that can collect multiple Commands and route input strings to them based on the first word in the input. To start, we’ll give it an empty map of commands.

final class CommandRouter {
  private final Map<String, Command> commands = Collections.emptyMap();

  Status route(String input) {
    List<String> splitInput = split(input);
    if (splitInput.isEmpty()) {
      return invalidCommand(input);

    String commandKey = splitInput.get(0);
    Command command = commands.get(commandKey);
    if (command == null) {
      return invalidCommand(input);

    Status status =
        command.handleInput(splitInput.subList(1, splitInput.size()));
    if (status == Status.INVALID) {
      System.out.println(commandKey + ": invalid arguments");
    return status;

  private Status invalidCommand(String input) {
        String.format("couldn't understand \"%s\". please try again.", input));
    return Status.INVALID;

  // Split on whitespace
  private static List<String> split(String string) {  ...  }

Finally, we’ll create a main method:

class CommandLineAtm {
  public static void main(String[] args) {
    Scanner scanner = new Scanner(System.in);
    CommandRouter commandRouter = new CommandRouter();

    while (scanner.hasNextLine()) {

Congratulations! We now have a working command line ATM! It doesn’t do anything just yet, but very soon we’ll change that.

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